About complementary colors
These types of colors are opposite each other as you can see in the image. They create a high contrast with a vibrant look especially when are used at full saturation. But beware, if this colors are not managed well it can create an ugly picture, very hard to watch! I also suggest not using more than three types of colors.
About analogous colors
Analogous colors are colors that are next to each other like in image. This arrangement is often found in nature and create pleasing and harmonious feelings for the human eye. A good example is in fall season, when leaves are tinted red and gold colors. I prefer this type of scheme. We use one color to dominate the scene, a second for support and a third color we used as an accent along with the black, white or gray. You can find a lots of examples in our food portfolio. Also in the example when we shoot cheese with tomato you can see that I did not use more than three main colors.
About triadic colors
This scheme uses colors that are evenly spaced around the color wheel as you can see in the image. Triadic colors tend to create a vibrant atmosphere. One color dominates the scene and the other two colors are used for accent.
There are also other types of such schemes like square color scheme, split-complementary scheme, rectangle scheme and so on. You can find a lot of information on the Internet or in other specialty books.
In conclusion, my advice is to choose colors carefully, without making abuse of them. I believe that three colors are sufficient in most situations. Choose warm colors or cool colors depending on the message / feeling you want to convey. And, again, don’t forget: practice is the most important thing that you can do for improve your skills !